Firth of Forth
At 0920, destroyer Zulu, which was the fourth ship in a line, was badly damaged by an acoustic mine 1.6 cables 064° from Beamer Rock in the Firth of Forth. The mine exploded 40 feet off the starboard side abaft of the bridge. There were no casualties on the destroyer. Many minor leaks, machinery defects, distortion of the bulkheads were caused by the explosion. The ship was repaired at Rosyth completed in thirteen weeks on 18 January 1941.
German torpedo boats Falke, Greif, Kondor, Seeadler, Wolf departed Cherbourg for another sortie to the area off the Isle of Wight.
Late on the 11th, in an engagement with anti-submarine trawler HMS Warwick Deeping (445grt, Skipper J. R. Bruce RNR) and French armed trawler MN Listrac (778grt, EV K. P. Kirane), both of the 17th Anti Submarine Group, in 5025N, 0150W, torpedo boat Greif sank Listrac with a torpedo and torpedo boats Kondor and Falke sank The 17th was a combined unit, with French vessels and RN vessels. It was notable for including a substantial number of French-speaking RCN personnel. HMS Warwick Deeping was sunk with gunfire. Kirane and eleven ratings were lost on the trawler MN Listrac. A/S/Lt R. J. Pickford RCNVR, twenty four ratings were wounded. No crew were lost in trawler Warwick Deeping.
At 0007 on the 12th, the German force contacted and sank French submarine chasers CH.6 (EV W. B. G. Galbriel MN) and CH.7 (S/Lt G. A. Gabbett-Mulhallen DSC, RCNR). The survivors of these ships picked up by German torpedo boat Greif.
Galbriel, Temporary Acting S/Lt D. B. Walton RNVR, seven ratings were lost on the CH.6. Twelve crew were taken prisoner. Only eight ratings were taken prisoner from CH.7. Destroyers Jackal, Jaguar, Jupiter, Kelvin, Kipling came out from Plymouth and two destroyers departed Portsmouth. At 0314 on the 12th, destroyer Jackal engaged two of the German ships at 280° from 50N, 1W at a distance of 27 miles. Neither side was damaged and the German ships arrived back at Cherbourg midmorning on the 12th.
Channel - Operation Medium
The British staff is now almost certain: the risk that German troops trying to cross the Channel is virtually nil for 1940. Already unlikely due to the longer campaign in France and Kriegsmarine losses in), chances for a cross-Channel invasion are fading quickly because of the energetic resistance of Fighter Command since the beginning of the Battle of Britain. Nevertheless, there remains some concern for 1941, concerns maintained by the concentration of German naval assets in the Channel ports and vigorous actions by German coastal forces.
Thus the Royal Navy decided on a naval bombardment of the port of Cherbourg, which would certainly be a logistics center for any amphibious operation and where the Germans have concentrated torpedo boats and S-boote. It was necessary to discuss this with the French. At first shocked at the idea of bombing a French city without urgent military necessity, they eventually resigned themselves to the determination of the Admiralty, supported by Churchill. However, they insisted on the presence of in the planning process and at sea of personnel who knew the city, so as to minimise civilian loss, damage and casualties. The Admiralty agreed to this insistence by their valued ally without hesitation.
The main group, from Plymouth, included the battleship Revenge, escorted by the destroyers Jackal, Jaguar, Javelin, Jupiter, Kashmir, Kelvin and Kipling. This group is covered to the west by the light cruisers Emerald and Newcastle and destroyers Broke, Bulldog, Burza (Polish) and Wanderer. They left Devonport following light cruiser Cardiff and destroyers Vanoc and Volunteer. Half a dozen MGB, were present to avert the threat of S-boote, and of course the force was preceded by minesweepers.
The RAF participated. Eleven Blenheims bombed the Charles X and Napoleon III basins and the batteries defending the port. Wellingtons illuminated the target, the sea and the coast and reported the fall of shot from Revenge.
From 0330 and for twenty minutes, the Revenge fired about 150 shells at 14-15,000 yards against port facilities and a river crowded with small vessels of all kinds, while destroyers fired about 800 rounds of 4.7”. Some German torpedo boats attempted a sortie but achieved nothing and the fire of shore batteries was inaccurate.
The British force returned to England intact at 0800 with the mission completed.
Other similar but smaller projects were planned elsewhere on the French coasts. Thus, on 16 October the monitor Erebus, escorted by the destroyers Garth and Walpole, bombarded Calais and Dunkirk. Each time, the French participation helped improve the accuracy of fire, reducing collateral damage.
Havas-OFI was quick to reveal his true face. His service does not exceed sixty headlines - hundreds cons for Havas Free service - and it is obvious that the foreign news are essentially provided by the German DNB. In their style, we discern that they were laboriously translated under the eye of censorship. The news from France, they, are distinguished primarily by their lack of interest and conformism parish bulletin, except to proclaim the power of hatred and his followers against the Jews and Freemasons.
Every day at 17:30 Havas-OFI disseminates instructions of the Ministry of Information - that is the direction of Pierre Laval as it has also reserved the portfolio. These "recommendations" - is now the official word - give a choice of two or three headlines for one, requiring the subjects and the pictures show and what tone it will have to deal with such news. "Freedom of the Press, is my freedom to decide for herself" snickers that some call for more than Bougnaparte.
The Official Journal publishes two decrees are realizing the will of General de Gaulle to punish most chefs Spring 40 "Clean the barn ganache". The high command had dragged its feet, but this desire has been shared ultimately with some refinements, the majority of the Government (if not all). These texts, adopted yesterday in a special cabinet meeting, signed by Albert Lebrun and countersigned by the "hard core" of power: Paul Reynaud, Blum, Charles de Gaulle, Georges Mandel, Vincent Auriol, Raoul Dautry, and Jean Zay Roland de Margerie.
In an editorial dated two days later and remain famous Pertinax, Enamored as ever of references revolutionary baptize these decrees "Vendemiaire the generals'. They put in non-activity by retirement or to affect the second section (they are no longer active but remain legally available to the Minister for any possible mission) most of the "chefs" Spring 1940 - those of course who were not named in the order of retirement from office October 2: Gamelin to begin, the leaders of armed groups, all the commanders of the army - except Huntziger and Nogues, of course, and Brother, Hering, Altmayer (senior) and Olry - plus all the five stars staffs except Doumenc and two thirds of the commanders of military regions. Insiders point out that Bourret liegeman Daladier, was not spared. A further sign of the waning influence of the Bull of Vaucluse, murmurs are not greedily, in the salons of Algiers which reconstructs a better substitute for social life.
A special fate was reserved for Georges "Allowed to claim his pension rights" and the same day appointed military governor of Tripoli, which seems to save his face. A Havas dispatch Free emphasizes, however degradation - real - its health sequelae of injuries received in Marseille in the attack against King Alexander 1er of Yugoslavia, which would prevent a return to active command. However, Margerie comment sarcastically "George was suffering, perhaps the worst form of saharage."
Catroux Mittelhauser and are not concerned: not only they were not involved in the defeat on the French front, but their actions and their behavior in their area of responsibility have been appreciated by all approved.
A third text, ministerial orders "Having regard to the special powers granted to the Government", Lowers "Temporarily" age limits, with the name list of general that the measure household. Those who are not mentioned by the two other decrees, but affected by this text may feel that their merits have been at least recognized. The measure puts the key three-quarters of General Lieutenant and nearly half of the divisional. Regarding the Air Force, the shelving affects Vuillemin - named however the board of directors of Air France at the request of Pierre Cot -- and approximately one third of his subordinates.
The Navy, which benefits from its status as the undefeated and winner of Taranto and can capitalize on the success of Grand Relocation is spared - especially as Darlan was appointed in September to the Department of the Navy (and Marines combined military and commercial).
The date chosen to publish these texts is significant: it allows the government to prevent the "blockheads" apart can not figure prominently during the November 11 ceremony, or not even involved in their preparation.
At 0915, destroyer Decoy was detached to Malta to refuel and destroyer Mphawk joined. At 0942, destroyer Imperial was detached to refuel.
Destroyer IMPERIAL was mined at 1105 on the 12th and badly damaged fifteen miles south of Delimara near Malta. One rating was killed in the explosion. She was towed to Malta by destroyer Decoy. Shewas repaired at Malta, sailing after completion on 28 April. This field had been laid shortly before by the Tarigo group.
Destroyer Vampire was detached at 1410 to refuel at Malta. Convoy MF 3 and light cruiser Orion arrived at Malta at 1600. Australian destroyers Vendetta and Stuart arrived with the convoy to start refitting in the Malta dockyard.
At 1800, destroyer Nubian, Hero, Havock rejoined the Main Fleet and destroyers Dainty, Defender, Diamond were detached to refuel. An Italian reconnaissance plane reported the British Mediterranean Fleet 100 miles southeast of Malta.
In anticipation that these warships would pick up some merchant ships recently arrived at Malta, Italian destroyers Artigliere, Camicia Nera, Aviere, Geniere with torpedo boats Airone, Alcione, Ariel were patrolling an area east of Malta.
Four MAS boats were to the north of the Italian force. One destroyer division and MAS boats were stationed to the west of Malta should the British force set out for Gibraltar.
Gunboat Aphis, after refitting, steamer Volo (1587grt) and Fleet auxiliary Plumleaf (5916grt) departed Malta at 2245 on the 11th, escorted by anti-aircraft cruisers Coventry and Calcutta and destroyers Wryneck and Waterhen. Late on the 12th, the British Mediterranean Fleet began its return to Alexandria.
When the "consultation of the villa of glycines, two lawyers, and Pr Capitant Seydoux, after confirming the legality of the French government advised the meeting of a" Committee of Wise Persons "responsible for proposing a review at least provisional the Constitution allows the continuation of the Democratic Republic in Exile
Italian submarine Tazzoli sank Yugoslavian steamer Orao (5135grt) in 3534N, 1035W.
Grand opening of the first session of the Assembly of Forces Vives of the Nation. Pierre Laval, surrounded the rostrum of Deat, Doriot and Bergery presents the Magna Carta in a long speech. Then he proclaims "Head of the French New State". No vote will crown the inaugural "To mark the difference with the corrupt democratic assemblies"As write in Deat The Work.
Central Mediterranean The Delimara Point Actions
Italian and Naval forces engaged RN forces east of Malta. In the first phase of the battle between the Italian torpedo boats and British radar equipped light cruiser Ajax (Captain E. D. B. McCarthy) which was proceeding to cover the eastbound convoy, Italian torpedo boats Ariel (LEUT Ruta) and Airone (LCDR Banfi) were sunk in 3537N, 1642E and light cruiser Ajax was hit three times, twice on the bridge, once amidships starting a fire in the central stores (which proved to be difficult to extinguish). Ajax was the outermost of 7th CS, which was spread north-east of the battlefleet. The weather was poor, with heavy overcast and showers.
The operational performance of the Italian torpedo-boats was poor. They were handled well, closed and attacked bravely, and were comprehensively let down by their design. Their torpedo armament layout only permitted two-torpedo salvoes. Captain McCarthy stated in his report that had the two torpedo boats been able to fire four torpedo salvoes, his ship would have been hit and probably lost.
Temporary Instructor Lt M. P. Gamon, B. Sc., Acting Temporary S/Lt G. H. K. Strathey RCNVR, ten ratings were lost on the cruiser. Lt Cdr J. G. T. Inglis, commissioned gunner C. W. Lewis, and twenty two ratings were wounded.
Italian torpedo boat Alcione picked up the survivors of torpedo boat Airone.
In the second phase of the battle between the Italian destroyers (which were coming to the aid of the torpedo boats) and Ajax, Italian destroyer Aviere was damaged and escorted back to base by undamaged destroyer Geniere. Destroyer Artigliere (CAPT Margottini) was badly damaged and Margottini killed. LEUT del Greco took over command, and destroyer Camicia Nera stood by and later attempted to take her into tow. Ajax was hit four times in this phase putting out one four inch gun, her degaussing gear and her radar. Ajax was much hampered by her lack of flashless ammunition, while the Italians used flashless. At this time the fleet was about 70nm SW of Ajax, and Cunningham ordered the 3rd and 7th cruiser Squadrons to close the fleet.
Early on the 13th while under tow, Italian destroyer Artigliere was subjected to fierce air attacks from Aircraft carrier Illustrious after being located by a Sunderland flying boat.
Alerted by Illustrious's report, heavy cruiser York (Captain R. H. Portal), light cruiser Ajax, four destroyers including Vampire and Nubian, located Artigliere. Camicia Nera was forced to cast off her tow and retired. Artigliere, helpless, hoisted a white flag and was given 30 minutes to abandon ship. She was then sunk by gunfire and a torpedo from York in 3547N, 1625E. Destroyers Vampire and Nubian dropped rafts and the crew was later picked up by an Italian hospital ship, their position have been broadcast in the clear on a known commercial frequency. Ajax and Sydney pursued Camicia Nera but did not catch her.
The Italian 3rd Cruiser Division, heavy cruisers Bolzano, Trento, Trieste with destroyers Vivaldi, Da Noli, Tarigo of the 14th Destroyer Flotilla departed Messina to support destroyers Artigliere and Camicia Nera, but did not arrive in time to save Artigliere.
At 0840, Sydney and Ajax, still pursuing Camicia Nera, were surprised by gunflashes on the visible horizon. This was the 3rd CD and 14th DD squadron. They replied but were outranged. At 0843 Ajax was hit by a shell from Trento, and the two cruisers retired at speed behind smoke. The Italians pursued, launching their Ro.43 while York and Orion came up in support and the fleet turned north, Illustrious readying a strike by 9 Swordfish.
At 0915, the four Imperial cruisers met, and formed line, being immediately engaged by the three RMI heavy cruisers. The range was such that the fire of the three light cruisers was not effective, and the ships began to suffer. Ajax was hit again, Sydney was hit twice in quick succession, and York dueled with Bolzano. All three Italian cruisers quickly switched to York, and six minutes into the action she was in trouble. Hit four times, her director was knocked out and a shell penetrated the forward boiler rooms, cutting steam lines and reducing her to 16 knots. The Italians were closing the range, leaving no choice but for the Imperial force to retire behind smoke screens laid by the destroyers. A cat and mouse game then followed, when at 0945 the Ro.43 from Trento reported sighting the Mediterranean Fleet only 50 miles from the scene of the action. Minutes later, Bolzano’s Ro.43 reported Swordfish inbound, and promptly attacked them. This disrupted their formation, while the Italian ships maneuvered radically at high speed. Despite some near misses, no torpedo hits were scored and one Swordfish was shot down. With their formation disrupted, the British cruisers disengaged and heading for their battleships at such speed they could manage: with clearing skies and a carrier in the area, there was no option but to retire towards Sicily, about 90 miles away.
This concluded the actions. The Italians were disappointed to have a victory snatched from them, but had handled their ships aggressively. They also learned the lessons well. The torpedo boats immediately began to have their tubes re-arranged on the centerline, and additional training in night actions commenced. The heavy cruisers had performed well, and more pressure was applied to provide long range land based fighters for such forces.
One hundred survivors were picked up by Italian ships from destroyer Artigliere. Eighty four survivors from torpedo boat Airone and forty one from Ariel were rescued.
The United Kingdom, France, Belgium and the Union Miniere du Haut Katanga (UMHK) signed an agreement to purchase stocks of uranium UMHK who are at present on deposit in New York . The uranium will be transferred to Canada in early 1941 to be refined, after the discovery of the isotope separation. The two great powers get to move at their own expense the stock of uranium remaining in Congo to New York regarded as neutral territory, pending a decision on his fate.
The agreement also provides that the civil benefits of this technology will be jointly operated fairly by the three governments and the UMHK will only beneficiary in Belgium.
Early on the 14th, Aircraft carriers Illustrious, escorted by cruiser Gloucester and destroyers Nubian, Hero, Hereward launched air strikes against Rhodes. The raid was successful and the ships returned to the Main Force at 0840/14th.
At 0900, heavy cruiser York, now back up to 25 knots, which was damaged and short of fuel, and destroyer Defender were detached to Alexandria.
Destroyers Vampire and Vendetta attacked submarine contacts at 1132.
The German raiders Orion and KometThe support ship Regensburg and oil Kulmerland stop at the atoll Lamotrek under Japanese mandate since 1914. The German ships are inspected by the port authorities, which do not seem surprised that the ships are disguised as Japanese freighter. The German officers produce documents provided to Regensburg and Kulmerland when they left Japan. They also refer to the Tripartite Pact, signed less than a month ago. The Japanese did not discover that theOrion and Komet are armed and are satisfied with their inspection. In fact, the Japanese government is not fooled, but allows such calls at remote ports where the risk of being caught in violation of neutrality laws is virtually nil.
After a few days off, the informal Squadron in the Far East (so named by sailors from the fleet of Admiral von Spee at the beginning of the War) Tries to skim the shipping lanes between New Zealand and Panama, without success. Meanwhile, the Regensburg off again to Japan to replenish supplies.
London and Algiers
At the same time exactly (13 hours in Algiers, noon to London - the partnership is not going to synchronize watches), Reuters and Havas Free broadcast a joint statement from the Foreign Office and the Quai d'Orsay (temporarily located Rue Michelet ), which announced in both English and French, the United Kingdom and France now not exchange ambassadors but high commissioners.
"Our two countries are determined to show the world, first to their allies and friends, but also their opponents, they have their free will, forged the closest of partnerships to victory all free peoples and the triumph of Right and Freedom on the dark forces of dictatorship and slavery " says the text.
- Looks like Giraudoux "before" maligned-on in some rooms of Algiers, where the author Siegfried and Limousin is still jealous.
In operation DHU, battlecruiser Hood departed Scapa Flow at 1550 to screen Furious And Heavy Cruisers Berwick and Norfolk with destroyers Matabele and Punjabi to raid Tromso on the 16th.
Destroyers Somali, Eskimo, Mashona departed Scapa Flow at 1550 and were exercising in the Pentland Firth prior to DHU. These destroyers joined aircraft carrier Furious. Furious aircraft attacked oil tanks and the seaplane base and shipping at Tromso on the 16th.
To celebrate the meeting of the Assembly of Forces Vives at Versailles and his own promotion to head of state, Pierre Laval signed the release order of 200 senior officials interned. However, they do not recover their positions, they are all suspended or delisted. The former prefect of Eure-et-Loir, Jean Moulin is classified as "A strike and release".
"The transaction Constance involved the active participation of Yugoslav-picked, often motivated by Francophilia (very strong in the country since the War, at least among the Serbs) and sometimes by ... reasonable financial incentives. These men were employees of Rogozarski and members of the Royal Yugoslav Air Force (Fary). Caution was however placed, because of pro-Nazi sympathies of some government and in particular the Regent Paul.
The first step was the beginning of September, the test in a Rogozarski IK-3 with an engine Saurer 12Y-51 kindly loaned by the Swiss. Given the remarkable improvement of aircraft performance compared to the 12 models already produced and powered 12Y Hispano-Crs, the manufacturer had sought and obtained the purchase by Fary 60 IK-30, ie ie IK-3 motor 12Y-51. For this account view of the inevitable breakage, Rogozarski Saurer had ordered 80 engines.
This order was followed for another 20 engines, which corresponded to the proposed twin-engined heavy fighter IK-5. This aircraft, whose design was begun during the winter of 1939-1940, saw its growth accelerated considerably in late summer 40, when engineers Rogozarski had received notification of draft technical documents of Breguet 700. Desperately missing a heavy fighter, the Air Force (which was reduced to amend Glenn Martin hunters) were seen in the IK-5 project a possible successor to his Potez 631 breathless. Command of Troops Aviation Swiss had also expressed interest. As was shown the order in 1937 two Potez 630, the Swiss had room in their doctrine for a heavy fighter capable of patrolling over its land for long hours to avoid a surprise attack and allow time for interceptors off. Moreover, the possibility to adjust the IK-5 in reconnaissance and light bombing was not to offend the Swiss officers, among whom the myth of the aircraft "to do anything" was not dead. Rogozarski had launched with the help of French designers, construction of 3 prototypes of the IK-5 and 5 had pre-series, further justifying the order of Saurer-12Y Hispano-51. Despite French aid, the IK-5 could not fly before the attack Germany and Italy in 1941. The bombs destroyed the nearly completed prototype 01 and the planes 02 and 03, respectively 66% and 45% completion.
Moreover, probably informed by an "indiscretion", the Greek fleet had decided to take advantage of the windfall to obtain the 12Y Saurer sophisticated and affordable for its re-engine Dornier seaplane engines 12Y-crs.
In all, Saurer, cash, decides to start manufacturing one hundred twenty 12Y-51 engine (he was encouraged to think big by funds invested in him by contractors Yugoslav patriots, anxious to ensure, in these troubled times that their country had a successful hunter of domestic manufacture, or almost). Two weeks later came the news that the Yugoslav marvel had conducted demonstrations in front of a very popular Turkish military delegation and that it had returned to Ankara, promising and wonders. As a result, production of fifty copies more was expected. Then set aside. Then reprogrammed ...
In total, with the "inevitable" problems of production, duplication, etc. ... the accounts presented by Saurer mention the delivery of 80 engines Rogozarski "For driving Fary", 20 "For the plant Rogozarski", 16 "For the Hellenic Navy" and 5 "For demonstrators to Turkey"Or one hundred twenty-one engines in all. How to question the accuracy of accounts of a Swiss company?
Flown from Switzerland to Yugoslavia, the first 20 engines were delivered between September 25 and October 4. In Rogozarski, delays in manufacturing accumulated: and cause materials to build the IK-30 had not been ordered. But nobody could be surprised that the engines were already delivered while the assembly line of cells was not launched because the 12Y-51 just landed aircraft were loaded onto trucks bound for a small port Greek, where a freighter discreet waiting, before heading to Algiers, surrounded by two escorts of the Navy.
For a multiplication operation worthy of the Marriage of Cana, the 121 engines reported by Saurer become 180 on the road to Algiers. In a new miraculous multiplication, they will cost the Air Force the price of 300 gear. But when you love, you do not count, have said the pilots of D-523!
IK-30 correspondents will never be delivered to the Yugoslav Aviation - "unexpected structural problems"! - Rogozarski and, as he had promised, prepare to pay for a lavish Fary forfeit. The German invasion appropriately to save the Air Force this additional cost.
On October 15, the second batch of 30 engines, was supported as the first. But this trip plane-truck-boat was too long and complicated. It should be faster, more modern. Operation Certainty took over from Constance". (Archibald Lenoir Behind the scenes of World War, Paris, 1967)
"Mr J. Strong "(Haile Selassie) makes discreet visit to the French government in exile. He met Paul Reynaud and Georges Mandel, but General de Gaulle. The meeting between the two men, almost comically contrasting physical, leads to quite surprising on a complicity that will last a lifetime.
Meetings are held in a cordial atmosphere characterized and lead to the signing of an agreement recalling and reaffirming the friendship that existed early in the century between France and Abyssinia. This agreement strongly inspired by that of January 1897, stipulates that "In accordance with the agreement of friendship uniting France and Ethiopia and declaring the French port of Djibouti official outlet for the commerce of Ethiopia, supplies, goods, weapons and ammunition intended for His Majesty the Emperor will pass duty free. "
The treaty also has the virtue of reminding the government of Her Gracious Majesty in playing the card of the King of Kings, France has influence on the future of Ethiopia and former Italian colonies and do not let the British Empire only to commands from the region - as elsewhere in the Treaty signed in December 1906 on the areas of French and British influence in the region.
The war in the Mediterranean is in a lull except for the still regular Italian convoys to Libya. Both sides are building up for the storm all know is about to start.
50nm south of Cape Collonne (Calabria), the Italian submarine Enrico Toti sinks the British Rainbow class submarine HMS Rainbow in a gun duel.
Marshal Ion Antonescu, Prime Minister, triggering a coup. With the support of the Iron Guard, he forced King Charles to abdicate. The latter's son, Michael, succeeded him, but he is under virtual house arrest in his palace. Meanwhile, German troops enter Romania to secure the oil of Ploesti and support the government Antonescu.
In Sudan, the Italian troops ventured to El-Obeid and Paloich were ordered to find and Kosti to retreat, to shorten the forehead and allow the freed troops to reinforce the Khartoum area, where the situation becomes difficult. This withdrawal will be implemented smoothly, the Allies will realize they have more in front of them as light units in passing to the offensive.
Italian submarine Cappellini sank Belgian steamer Kabalo (5186grt) from convoy OB.223 in 3159N, 3120W. One crewman was lost from the steamer. Survivors from Kabalo were picked up by American steamer Pan American (9862grt).
Battleship King George V had completed construction at Vickers Armstrong, Tyne, in mid October and was to be taken away from the Tyne for final completion and working up at Rosyth.
In the margins of the Day GPEF, Joseph Darnand was appointed by Pierre Laval "Secretary of State, Delegate to the Security GPEF under the authority of the Head of State French». Darnand becomes a Minister of the Interior bis, which responds only to Pierre Laval of his actions.
The Consulate General of France in receiving an anonymous package, deposited during the night in the mailbox without the civil guards on duty would be moved, a copy of three underground newspapers - a recto-verso, indeed, in each case - published in occupied France.
The first The Patriot Auvergne suggests some ways The Mountain the major newspaper of the Massif Central near the Popular Front. More anti-Italian opposes the Germans The Allobroge, judging by its style, was not written by journalists, but rather, perhaps, by officers of the Alpine troops. Finally, Freedom of Brittany which states have offices in Rennes, Brest, Quimper, Saint-Brieuc, Morlaix Nantes, this unambiguously as "The newspaper of the Britons who want to say shit Krauts". The Patriot Auvergne claims a weekly publication, while the Free Britain Monthly affirmed. More realistic, perhaps, theAllobroge appear "Whenever necessary" provided, he acknowledges that its authors "Are still at large".
Realizing the importance of these few pages, the consul, Jacques Dumaine, Personally carries three newspapers in Madrid the day driving his Citroen. The same evening, they are put into the bag leaving for AFN via Lisbon. Take note of Algiers Patriot Auvergne 'sAllobroge and Free Britain on the evening of October 18.
This event marks the beginning of the formation of the ‘Central Army’ and the conversion of the civilian resistance into the essential ‘nervous system’ of the Hidden Armies. The links established from this incident grew to the point where by mid 1943, despite the Massif Central appearing to be quiet and fully under central government control, it actually hosted over 50,000 trained French troops who were also quite well equipped, and vast swathes of territory where the civil administration was completely under the control of the Civil Government Resistance.
The British referred to the resistance entities which specialised in infiltrating and taking over local government (starting with the Police) as the Civil Government Resistance (CGR). The specialised communications entities were the Civil Communications Resistance (CCR) and the specialist reconnaissance entities the Civil Reconnaissance Resistance (CRR) – this latter was increasingly absorbed by the French Army as time went by. As one CGR reader noted after the war: “For two years the local German garrison and the collaborators were assured of complete quiet. A lone German could walk unarmed with pockets full of gold right across our area, all in absolute safety. And during that walk we knew everything down to the size in centimeters when he stopped to relieve himself. And he never knew that we had first three companies, then three battalions, then over a brigade of fully armed, trained, uniformed French soldiers through which he moved, completely oblivious. We quietly and methodically liberated the region, and they simply never realised it until the day came and we killed them, or took them prisoner of war.”
The deception took place on many levels. US factories turned out meticulous copies of older-style French uniforms, marked entirely in French and stone tumbled to appear old and worn. If a German patrol found even a whole cartload of such clothing, what of it? Half of rural France was dressed in such cast-offs by 1942. The US quietly collected 250,000 of the million 8mm Lebel rifles manufactured for the French Army in 1918 and never delivered, but sold into the private market as hunting rifles postwar. While many were broken up for parts, this left 180,000 rifles which looked worn and second hand, but which were in perfect working order. By mid 1942, the swamps of the Camargue were filled with smugglers moving crates of rifles and ammunition north-west, into the mountains. Quite a few were caught. If the police who caught them belonged to the CGR, no more was said, a ‘bribe’ was paid, the smugglers released, the rifles were confiscated and stored at a police warehouse, from which they often vanished. If not, well, smugglers moved anything, rifles were a small part of the trade, and these were old French Army rifles, being ‘smuggled for profit to the coast’. By late 1942, areas in the mountains had been cleared to the point where Allied transport aircraft were regularly flying in tons of equipment, arms and ammunition.
A Meeting of Staff combined the lessons of the attacks on Pantelleria and the Dodecanese.Both British and French agreed that their landing techniques and equipment were far too primitive. However, as the British pointed out to their French counterparts, research and development of landing craft had been going on for some years in the Royal navy.
The Inter-Service Training and Development Centre (ISTDC) had from 1938-39 been investigating this, although funding had been short. The ISTDC has taken note of Churchill’s comments, when he stressed upon the evacuation of Dunkirk the lack of specialised vessels. As a result, many designs were entering either final stage or production and a prototype of TLC (Tank Landing Craft, soon renamed LCT) was conducting sea trials and was scheduled to enter production in December 1940. Thirty modified WWI-style X-lighters were entering service in the interim to provide some capability at least for training. However, a;; these vessels were short-sea types.
The matter of global reach was also being addressed. The Admiralty had studied the issue and decided to build prototype vessels which could transport 40-60 tanks and land them on a beach. To speed the process, they had selected the shallow-draft Maracaibo tankers Bachaquero, Misoa and Tasajera for conversion to the first Landing Ship Tanks (LST).
In Operation PS, monitor Erebus, escorted by destroyers Garth and Walpole, departed the Nore and bombarded Calais from 0010 to 0042 on the 17th. On the return, Erebus's port engine broke down and the monitor was assisted by British tug St Clair (255grt).
Italian steamer Verace (1219grt) was sunk on a mine at Benghazi.
Early on the 17th, German destroyers Steinbrinck, Lody, Ihn, Galster departed Brest to raid British shipping at the west exit of the Bristol Channel. German torpedo boats Greif, Seeadler, Kondor, Falke, Wolf, Jaguar departed Cherbourg to act as a support force. The German destroyers were sighted at 0719 near Brest by British aircraft.
Three convoys were in immediate danger, convoy OG.44 escorted by Sloop Wellington, convoy SL.50 escorted by Armed merchant cruiser Pretoria Castle, convoy HG.45 escorted by British escort vessel Gleaner. These convoys were ordered to steer west until the threat was dealt with.
Light cruisers Newcastle and Emerald with destroyers Jackal, Jupiter, Kashmir, Kipling, Kelvin departed Plymouth at 1100. The German ships were sighted at 1600 and an action ensued that continued until 1800 when the German destroyers had outdistanced the British force. No damage was received by either side, but destroyer Jupiter experienced mechanical problems limiting her speed before the engagement and light cruiser Newcastle had a breakdown in number three boiler room in the pursuit.
The British and German forces were never less than 18, 000 yards apart. Both forces were back in their respective ports early on the 18th.
Conclusion of a Memorandum of Understanding temporarily between the BBC and Radio National. It provides that the BBC will make available to its French counterpart two powerful medium wave transmitters and transmitter low shortwave radiation for the retransmission of its programs in northern France from Great Britain, pending entry into service of issuers longwave and shortwave of Tipasa, which is not expected before March 1941 at the earliest. In return, the BBC can use one of two medium-wave transmitters to serve Tunis Malta if the resort of La Valette was destroyed by the Italians, and in case of aggression Spanish, use the transmitter to Oran watering Gibraltar.
At the request of Winston Churchill, a secret protocol was attached to the memorandum. It states that French and British study, from January 1941, the pooling of certain resources to mount programs propaganda to the attention of the German forces of occupation in France, Belgium and the Netherlands. In the same vein, it provides programs directed to Italian troops in Libya.
Jean Moulin was canceled, but released! Its functions and its prefectural few weeks in prison, with other administrators deemed unsafe by the men Darnand, allowed him to witness the emergence of many resistance movements, including senior management. He decides to go to the south, where he has ties, determined to go to Algeria to take the legal government of his experience and contacts. He understood that a generation will acquire the political experience under very specific and it is important that it does so in structured, with senior officials like him!
A new Inter-Allied Council sat for the first time. The Council is composed of the two Great Powers, Norway, Belgium, Holland and the NEI (a semi-separate political and strategic entity), Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. The Chinese military Attache was present as an observer. In a semi-closed session, he briefed the Allies on recent Japanese military developments. He made the point that Chinese contributions to any anti-Japanese cause depended mainly on the Haiphong-Kunming railway.
The meeting had a full review of the military balance in both Europe and Asia after the signing of the Tripartite Pact. The Empire and France agreed on the need to safeguard the future in the Far East by demonstrating a solid military commitment through reinforcements. This was strongly supported by the Pacific Dominion governments and Batavia. The Australians and New Zealanders presented a proposal to develop a RAAF expeditionary force to be deployed to Malaya (the New Zealand component of this was a commitment to fund a substantial part of the necessary infrastructure) in addition to the Division they were already committed to send.
In the Med, the strategy of clearing the sea for trade convoys was agreed. Wavell briefed on his planned operation against Libya in December, and the French on their part in it. Basically, the French were to tie the western forces down, while O’Connor attacked in the east. The French role was far from minor, but it was not as active as some wanted. Algiers well understood that their major effort had to be to sort out the colossal confusion and disruption of the Big Move.
As a precursor to opening the Mediterranean, it was necessary to open the Aegean, which placed Rhodes firmly in position as the first major target. Not only would this enable amphibious attack issues to be tested, it would open the Russian wheat trade, easing demands on Imperial tonnage by allowing Egypt to be fed from local sources and not from Australia. It was also agreed that to push the Japanese off balance and conform to US policy, that some equipment would be sent to China. The Chinese Attache stunned the meeting with a speech at this point. He said that much more important than military equipment, extremely welcome though that was, would be assistance from the British and French Treasury Departments, Mints and Banks, and an economic agreement: his government’s highest priority was completing its currency reform and moving economic reforms forward. This was quickly agreed to. The Italian fleet was a major focus of discussion, and it was seen that the point at which it could be reduced to nuisance value was when Sicily was occupied and had powerful tactical air forces present. The most sobering presentation was from the ministry of War Transport, on the global shipping situation.
The Journal Officiel publishes a decree-law which overturns the habits, ends a centuries old tradition and draws, without hesitation, the lessons of the campaign of spring and summer:
- Art. 1.
Weapon Cavalry is abolished with effect from December 31, 1940.
- Art. 2.
Subdivision weapon tanks Infantry is deleted with effect from December 31, 1940.
- Art. 3.
It was created with effect from 1er January 1941 under the name Armor - Cavalry, a new weapon grouping all the armor and motorcycle-mechanics of the Army.
- Art. 4.
Waiting for their engine, the unit still mounted troops Metropolitan, Army of Africa and the colonial troops are attached to Armor - Cavalry.
- Art. 5.
The cavalry regiment of the Republican Guard remain until further notice, part of the Force.
- Art. 6.
Staff officers and NCOs of active tanks may apply until February 15, 1941, retention in the framework of the Infantry. It will only be granted their request that given by the minister to the needs of the Armed Peace.
In Algiers, October 16, 1940
By the President of the Republic
Paul Reynaud, President of Council
Vincent Auriol, Minister of Economy and Finance
Charles de Gaulle, Minister of National Defense
A simple decree, also signed by 16 Reynaud, De Gaulle, complete this device:
- Article unique
General de Corps Delestraint (Charles Anthony) is appointed in advance, Inspector General of the Armor - Cavalry with effect from 1er December 1940.
Submarine H.49 (Lt R. E. Coltart) was sunk by German auxiliary submarine chasers UJ.116 (trawler Gronland, 447grt) and UJ.118 (trawler ELBE, 462grt) off Terschelling. Lt Coltart, Lt C. H. Peterkin, S/Lt A. Carew-Hunt, Probationary S/Lt L. H. L. Dearden, twenty two ratings were lost with H.49. One rating was rescued and made a prisoner of war.
The Luftwaffe starts to really look at their poor showing so far during the Battle of Britain, they note that the Stukas are too vulnerable, the Bf-109 too short-ranged, the Bf-110 are too unwieldy and, generally, the RAF is benefiting from very good ground control, despite the bombing that is shattering their cities. Worse, Germany lacks both a night bomber with a large bomb load and an effective long range, well armed, reliable daylight bomber.
On this day an otherwise innocuous report on this matter is sent. This report will spark events which see the He-177 rapidly corrected and made combat worthy.
The Staff of the Luftwaffe blame this failure on the inability of the Heer to quickly finish the French in order to give time to the Luftwaffe to redeploy. The Heer countered with a scathing indictment of the cancellation of the Luftwaffe mass training scheme. This bickering has the ultimate effect of establishing a new Luftflotte, reinforcing the re-establishment of the training scheme, and sparking a search for new aircraft an engine types.
Jacques Doriot Himmler meets secretly. In exchange for his support against Laval and Deat, he accepts the principle of its own membership and, potentially, to membership of the PPF members of the SS (remember that if indeed the Wehrmacht is forbidden to recruit " not racially Germans, "the Waffen-SS has the right and did not hesitate!).
East Africa (Sudan)
Malakal: The Belgian Column
"While the troops of the Police Force are preparing to take the offensive, Colonel Auguste Gilliaert, who commands the BCS, has agreed to receive me for an interview. His men called "Kopi", which means Leopard. It's a big man, quiet, in fact, a je ne sais quoi of feline in her movements. To me, this is my first interview with a senior military also, and I feel a certain apprehension. When I entered his tent, Gilliaert is reading a telegram, which seems obviously satisfied. I stay away a few moments, then he notices me, beckons me to approach and sit down, he filed the document on which he carefully puts his glasses.
- Good news from the front, sir? I asked with as much aplomb as I could muster.
- Not exactly, things remain under control of that side. But you see, to impress our adversaries, the gentlemen of Leopoldville felt it appropriate to place a general at the head of the Belgian expeditionary forces in Sudan. And so here I am Major General!
- If you allow me, congratulations, my neck ... I mean, sir! I stammered. Many interpreted the transfer of command from the PS to Lt. Gen. Ermen as a disavowal of how Gilliaert led mobilization. This promotion was probably the transition from military salve ego scratched.
But Gilliaert takes on a tone of wry:
- Our opponents, but just as surely our beloved British Allies. In early summer, they were not so eager to see us. I knew that already, during the campaign Tombeur General in 1916: they call us when nothing goes, it pulls the hook, and then they want to send us home as quickly as possible for fear of having to give us a few acres jungle or savannah.
No hurry to follow our General on this slope, I jump from the ass with a youthful enthusiasm that I did not need to pretend:
-- When we pass to the offensive?
- What enthusiasm, my great! Tell me, what I have to tell you, it stays between us, of course ... For the offensive, we will most probably wait too long. Meanwhile, we practice what I call an aggressive activity around Paloich. We must annoy the Italians, tease the beast if you want. In sum, we apply the maxim of Kitchener: "You can try anything against an opponent who refuses to move".
- What is the role reserved for the Public Force in the days and weeks to come?
- You will discover very quickly. It will be decisive anyway.
- Thank you, sir, I mean, sir!" (Jo Gerard op.cit.)
Destroyers Firedrake, Wrestler, Vidette attacked and sank Italian submarine Durbo off Alboran Island in 3454N, 0417W. Forty eight survivors were picked up by the British ships and landed at Gibraltar. The Italian personnel were placed aboard troopship Reina Del Pacifico for transport to England.
Italian steamer Cuma (6463grt) was sunk off Gela/Licata, Sicily, in 370150N, 140612E on a mine.
Australian light cruiser Hobart was refitting at Colombo from 19 October to 19 November 1940. On completion of this refit, she relieved New Zealand light cruiser Leander in the Red Sea Force.
Destroyers Gallant, Griffin, Hotspur sank Italian submarine Lafole off Mellila in 3600N, 0300W. The submarine had fired a torpedo at destroyer Forester. Hotspur sustained considerable damage to her bow ramming the submarine. She received temporary repairs at Gibraltar from 22 October to 20 November. Then to Malta for repairs from 29 November to 20 February. Gallant picked up one officer and one rating from the Italian submarine. Seven ratings were picked up by destroyer Hotspur.
Aircraft carrier Eagle departed Alexandria with destroyers Hasty, Ilex, Decoy, Hereward on exercises. All the ships arrived back at Alexandria at 0915 on the 21st.
Heavy cruiser Kent was undocked at Alexandria after emergency repairs for torpedo damage. She was moored astern of submarine depot ship Medway. The heavy cruiser departed Alexandria on the 26th for Port Said.
Under pressure from the Militärverwaltung, the Secretary General of Ministry of Interior of Belgium, Jean Vossen, announced the decision to abolish the holiday of November 11, the anniversary of the Armistice of 1918.
The British destroyer Venetia adds to the long list of victims of German magnetic mines. She activates one and founders in the entrance of the Thames. But such episodes can not hide the fact that the Luftwaffe was still unable to take control of British airspace.
Force Public Belgian, its air component (CAFP) supports his best attack to the north starting from Malakal, while small detached elements of the 4th Indian Division attack toward the south, starting from Port Sudan. The two forces must converge in Kassala. The objective is to encircle the Italian troops who threaten Khartoum.
On the ground, Congolese troops enter Paloich without firing a shot. Having identified the preparations for the assault, the last rear-guard Italians left the city during the night to withdraw further north to Kosti. "First Belgian victory against the forces of the Axis!" Jo Gerard wrote triumphantly.
Immediately, General Gilliaert commands the IVe Battalion continue east towards the road junction of Ulu, while 5e RI, under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Edmond Van der Meersch, moved northward and Kosti. There must be a junction with elements of the Sudan Defense Force, Which pursue the Italians from El Obeid.
Convoy BS.7 departed Suez. The convoy was joined on the 21st by sloop Grimsby and on the 22nd by sloop Clive. Both sloops were detached on the 24th when the convoy was joined by light cruiser Leander, anti-aircraft cruiser Carlisle, destroyer Kingston, sloops Auckland and Yarra. The convoy dispersed off Aden on the 28th.
Simon Arbellot sign came in the presence of Josef Goebbels himself, a series of Verständnis (agreements) with Gustav Albrecht, director of the DNB (Deutsches Nachrichten Büro) news agency of the Reich, and Kurt Ruhland, head of photography department of the Ministry of Propaganda (PK Bildkreis der Stiftung). Through these agreements, Havas-OFI can use "Freely" - In compliance with the instructions of the censor, means - the pictures broadcast in the Third Reich by the DNB and Propaganda Ministry. In exchange, Havas-OFI pay its German suppliers an annual subscription set at 5 ... 000 pounds (!), Payable in British currency (!!), dependent on the agency instead of the Exchange to obtain Bank of France allowance currency (!!!). This sum, argue his interlocutors Arbellot is the exact equivalent of the fee paid before the war to the American agency Havas to AP by the exclusivity of her photos. They do not emphasize the fact that Reich is seeking by every means to obtain foreign currency to meet all kinds of needs.
In the evening, a gala dinner was held at the Hotel Kaiserhof (where the Fuhrer was a regular until 1933), in honor of the boss of Havas-OFI, joined by Jean Luchaire who serves as chairman of its board of administration and was bound for the world the opportunity to court the powers of Berlin. Luchaire, as usual, is accompanied by his daughter Corinne, the actress he would become a star. For attention of Goebbels, Arbellot receives for nearby table Zarah Leander, the Swedish star of Nazi cinema, including plastic, skin tone and hair obey the canons of beauty so valued by Northern SS and so sought by anthropologists regime.
Wanting to build on the goodwill of his hosts, Arbellot Josef Goebbels asked to intervene for the release of writer and journalist Robert Brasillach that month in a Stalag. Free, Brasillach, says he would return to the editor I Am Everywhere and belongs by right to the board of directors of Havas-OFI. The minister merely Arbellot promise to take steps in this direction, without commitment, because, says he, prisoners are not only the staff of the Wehrmacht, in theory, can only decide their fate.
The Belgian troops enter without difficulty in Renk, evacuated by the Italians. General Gilliaert immediately decides to make a forward base for offensive Kosti and is preparing the local track to accommodate aircraft of the CAFP.